"Impikiswano ivulekile."

Ingxenye enkulu yabantu abamnyama baseMelika ngesikhathi sobugqila yayingezona izigqila: yayikhululekile ngoba yayizikhulule… Lesi isithombe esethusayo isazi-mlando saseGenevan esisidwebayo U-Aline Helg Ungaphinde Ube yizigqila! Ukusuka ekungazameni ukuya ekuvukeleni, inganekwane enkulu yokukhululwa (1492-1838), umsebenzi wokuqala wokuhlanganisa ulwazi oluhlakazekile ngale ndaba kumdwebo womhlaba wonke.

- Le Temps: Izigqila, obhalayo, zikhululwa ngezindlela ezintathu. Indiza, ukuqala ngo ...
- U-Aline Helg: Lesi isinyathelo esinengqondo kunazo zonke: sibalekela isimo esingabekezeleleki ...

Phakathi namakhulu amabili eminyaka yokuqala koloni, kungalinganiselwa ukuthi izigqila ze-10% ziyakwazi ukuphunyuka. Ezingxenyeni ezingakaze zilawulwe ngokombuso, lezi zigqila ezibalekile - ezibizwa ngokuthi "i-chestnuts" - zihlanganise nabanye ababaleki namaNdiya. 

Eminye imiphakathi yamaMaroon ithatha ukubaluleka okukhulu kangangokuba ekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX kanye nasekuqaleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX amakhosi aseNgilandi nawaseSpain asayina izivumelwano nawo, eqaphela inkululeko yawo ngaphansi kombandela wokuthi awawamukeli amaMaroon amasha nokuthi lisiza ezombusazwe uma kunesidingo… Iningi lalemiphakathi isekhona nanamuhla, futhi igcina amalungelo athile. 

Kunesibonelo esaziwayo seSan Basilio de Palenque eColombia, abanye eSuriname. Ngeshwa, njengasendabeni yamaNdiya asinda kugebe lokukoloni, amazwe abo manje aseyizisulu ezinkampanini ezinkulu zezimayini.

- Izigqila eziningi zenza imali ngokuposa kwazo ...
- Kuyindlela engaqondakali kunazo zonke: ukuhlengwa kwenkululeko yomuntu. Lokhu kungenzeka kwaba khona emthethweni wamaRoma, kuthathwa emithethweni yase-Iberia yekhulu le-XNUMX kuya kwele-XNUMX bese kudlulela eMelika kuzo zonke izindawo zaseSpain nasePortugal. 

Kunemithetho eqondile: isamba okufanele sikhokhwe enkosini akumele sibe ngaphezulu kunentengo yokuthenga; kungenzeka ukuhlenga inkululeko yomuntu ngamancozuncozu; isigqila singahlenga inkululeko yomuntu wesithathu, imvamisa ingane yaso… Konke lokhu kuthuthukiswe kakhulu emakoloni aseHispano-Portuguese, kwaze kwaba sekupheleni kobugqila ngo-1886-1888. Emakoloni aseFrance, amaNgisi kanye namaDashi lokhu kungenzeka kwaba khona ekuqaleni, kepha njengoba uhlelo lwamasimu lwathuthuka lwaqedwa. Emhlabeni jikelele, singalinganisela ukuthi ingxenye yesithathu yezigqila zamadolobha aseHispano-Portuguese akwazi ukuthenga inkululeko yawo. Ngokusobala, inzalo yabo nayo yayikhululekile.

- Izigqila ezizikhulula ikakhulu ngabesifazane ...
- Ukufunda ngamehlo sekuyisikhathi eside kuchaza lo mkhuba ngokuthi babeyizancinza zamadoda amhlophe. Eqinisweni, ukutadisha amarejista kukhombisa ukuthi iningi lezigqila ngokwazo layihlenga inkululeko yalo. Kanjani? 'Noma' Ini? 

Abesifazane babebaningi kunabesilisa emadolobheni, lapho babevunyelwa ukuthi basebenzele i-akhawunti yabo ngamaSonto nangamaholide; kancane kancane baqongelela iqanda lesidleke ngokuwasha izingubo noma ngokuthengisa ezimakethe ... Kwakukhona nendlela yokuzikhulula eyayibekelwe amadoda, eyayihlanganisa ukubhaliswa njengamasosha, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sokunqoba futhi ekuqaleni kwekoloni. Kwakukhona izigqila ezimnyama nabanqobi, okwathi kwesinye isikhathi baba ngama-encomenderos: babethola njengezipho ezivela emiphakathini yamaNdiya, ababebahola futhi bebaxhaphaza. 

Lokhu kungenzeka futhi kwaqala ngesikhathi sezimpi zokuzibusa, lapho amabutho ayengenalutho amadoda asebenzayo.

- Ekugcineni, kunamahlongandlebe ...
- Ngikuchaza lokhu njengokugqugquzela ukuqoqa okungenani ingxenye eyodwa kweziyishumi yenani lezigqila elinikeziwe, nokubandakanya izenzo zodlame. 

Ukuvukela kwakumbalwa kakhulu, ngokuphambene nalokho esakukholelwa. Isigaba sokuqala yiloBelbice (phakathi kwama-deltas we-Orinoco ne-Amazon) ku-1763. Yiqiniso, kukhona iSanto Domingo kusukela ku-1791, okuholela ekukhululweni kwezigqila zesiqhingi (400 000, lapho efika), ukunqotshwa kwamabutho aseNapoleon nokumenyezelwa iRiphabhulikhi yaseHaiti ngezigqila: lokhu kuyindlela enkulu yokuguqula, okwakunakekelwa isikhathi eside, umlando weMelika ... 

Ukuguquka okukhulu kokugcina okwenziwe ku-West West Indies njengoba ukubhujiswa kwemvelo kuqala ukuthola amandla eNgilandi; basungula inkhulumomphendvulwano kanye nokusekelwa ngokubambisana nokubhujiswa, okusiza ukuletha.

- Kuvelaphi ukungaqondi kahle ukuthi ukuvukela kwakwenzeka kaningi?
- Ingqikithi yokuhlubuka kwezigqila ikhona kakhulu emisebenzini eyabhalwa eMelika ngeminyaka yama-80: inkathi ephawulwe ngemibono yobuqhawe nangesibalo sabashokobezi ... 

Inkinga yukuthi lezi zifundo zathatha amaphepha enkantolo ngemali, efunda njengokuvukela kwezenzakalo lapho izigqila ezingenzi lutho ngaphandle kokucabanga nokukhuluma ngokuvukela. Kodwa-ke, ngoba imithetho esebenzayo, ukucabangela ukubulala umuntu omhlophe kunzima kakhulu ukumbulala ngempela, futhi ukuvuma kuvamile ukuhlukunyezwa. 

EBrithani West Indies, iziboshwa zase ziboshwe ngezikhali zazo lapho zibhekene khona; Uma bekhuluma ngenkathi becindezelekile ngenkathi bebiza amagama ezinye izigqila, babhekwa njengezingxube futhi babhekana nokuhlushwa okufanayo ... Eqinisweni, ukuhlubuka kwesigqila kungokwesimo esiqhubekayo emoyeni amakholoni, avela ku-1537 eMexico City futhi awela izwekazi lonke. Lokhu kunengqondo: ngaphezu kwenkathi yonke nensimu yaseMelika, kunezikhathi ezine ezithunjwa abantu base-Afrika kunabamhlophe abamhlophe. Ama-Whites ayingcosana kakhulu, ahlale esaba.

- Izigqila, ozibhalayo, zishintshe amasu azo ngokuvumelana nezinguquko esimweni samazwe omhlaba kanye nezikhala ezikhona ohlelweni lokubusa. Bakwenze kanjani ukwaziswa?
- Kulula: njengoba abaphathi babo babathatha njengabangenacala, babamba izingxoxo zabo phambi kwezigqila ... Cabanga nje: abatshali bahlangana nombusi ngenkathi bebhema ugwayi, bagxeka izinqumo zenkosi futhi babone ukuthi kukhona unamabutho ambalwa ngenxa yempi phakathi kweFrance neNgilandi; izigqila zisebenzela i-cognac futhi zilalele; abanye bangafunda futhi bazohlola izindaba ephephandabeni ... 

Esinye isici esaziwa kancane inkulumo eyakhiwe yizigqila ukuvikela inkululeko yazo. Kukhona izivivinyo ezweni lase-Iberia ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX lapho izigqila zibhekisa kwifilosofi yamalungelo emvelo: uNkulunkulu wadala bonke abantu balingana… Emakoloni amaProthestani, lapho ukushunyayelwa kwevangeli kubandakanya ukufunda iBhayibheli , izigqila zizosebenzisa i-akhawunti yokugqilazwa kwamaHeberu eGibhithe nokukhululwa kwazo ukwakha uhlobo lwemfundiso yenkolo yenkululeko yangaphambi kwehora. Bathembele eBhayibhelini ukuthi bathi: kungenxa yokuthi uNkulunkulu uyayifuna, futhi inkosi yethu kufanele imlalele ...

- Kusho ukuthini konke lokhu mayelana nokuba yizigqila kanjani?
- Okokuqala, lithi isizungu ababekuso. Ukuqedwa kombuso kwaqala ngawo-1760s. Kuze kube yileso sikhathi, izigqila zaziyedwa ngokuphelele emiphakathini eyayingaziboni nokuthi ziyizidalwa: "zaziyizimpahla ezihambayo" ngokomthetho ... 

Kulezi zimo, ukuba neprojekthi yokuphila ehlanganisa ukuzikhulula kubonisa amandla, ukumelana okungavamile, umuzwa wedwa okhululekile. Sisekude nomfanekiso, odwetshiwe isikhathi eside, wezinceku eziphambene ngokuphelele, ngaphandle kwemithombo yokuphuma kuwo. Ngokuphambene nalokho, izigqila zaziyizisebenzi emlandweni wazo; naphezu kwesimo sabo, bafuna ukuba nendima ekuphileni kwabo.

- Le ndlela "enye iMelika yakhiwa ngokuqonda", ukusebenzisa ibinzana lakho. Ngabe ubukeka kanjani umhlaba we "color free"?
- Kungumhlaba wabasebenzi basemadolobheni, wezinhloko zemindeni zabesifazane basemadolobheni. Kubuye kube yindawo yasemaphandleni yama-llaneros - ama-cowboy emathafeni - nabalimi. 

Izwe elalikhishwa inyumbazane ngemuva kokuba amakoloni ethole inkululeko, labe selisetshenziswa ngokobuhlanga ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX. Kuzoba khona ukuhlaselwa okukhulu lapha: akuncane ukuqedwa kobugqila kunokuba ubuhlanga "besayensi" buthathe. 

Ngokuqondene nababhubhisi, ngakho-ke, baqeda ubugqila ngokunxephezela amakhosi, kepha bazilahla lezo zigqila ngokushesha ngemuva kwalokho. Ngakho-ke lo mhlaba uhlupheka kakhulu ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX nasekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX. 

Lapho kuthuthukiswa izwe kanye nezomnotho ezithunyelwa kwamanye amazwe, kunzima ukuthola indawo yalo esizweni. Noma ngabe isibalo sabantu, inani labantu elivela "elingenambala" livame ukumela iningi ... Namuhla, iminikelo yamasiko nobuchwepheshe yezigqila ekwakheni nasekuthuthukiseni iMelika seyaziwa: alikho izwe IMelika engachazwa ngaphandle kokusho le minikelo emikhulu. Lokhu kumangalisa kakhulu njengoba izigqila zikhiqize ezikhungweni ezincane ezihlale zitholakala ezimpilweni zazo.

U-Aline Helg, "Awuphinde uphinde ube yizigqila! Kusukela ekuhlubukeni ekuvukeni, indaba enkulu yokukhululwa (1492-1838) "(Ukutholakala)